Bread or in Greek artos was considered in the past as the most important human good after health and water. Bread, the product prepared by baking in special furnaces and under defined conditions of mass consisting of wheat flour, water, dough and a small amount of salt. Flour is the main material in making bread and its properties depend significantly on the properties of the grain from which it is produced. Wheat is the only cereal whose flour has the ability to form dough when contacted with water. As a result, flour has the exclusive property of shaping the structure and appearance of bakery products.
Flour consists of proteins, starch and other carbohydrate lipids, fiber, water and ash as well as low levels of vitamins, minerals and enzymes. Its proteins, gliadins and glutenins interact with each other when mixed with water creating the gluten grid. The grid has the ability to bind the gases produced during fermentation or produced by chemical blowing agents in the form of bubbles and it swells causing the bloating of the dough. The amount of protein contained in the flour determines the amount of gluten to be formed, which, in turn determines the strength, shape and structure of the dough. Typically, bread flour is made of hard wheat which contains a high level of protein.
It is the main food in Europe but also in the cultures of America, Middle East and North Africa. Unlike East Asia, where the main food is rice. Nowadays, due to modernization, bread is everywhere and there are tons of variations of it.
Bread is an important part of many people’s diets, perhaps as toast for breakfast, perhaps as sandwiches for lunch. What do you think?
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